#7001 10th Sep 2019 07:18:11

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON ANCIENT ROME
THE BASILICA JULIA
The Roman structure known as The ''Basilica Julia'' was a building was built in 46 BC, near The Public Forum. Named and dedicated by then Emperor Julius Caesar (in honor of his Family name ''Juli'' (or Julius), it would be added too many times during it's service. It served as a Roman Administrative Legal Center (Court), and at time Shops as well as a Bank.. Funding was secured from the ''spoils'' of Caesar's Gallic Wars.

While nothing remains save collapsed foundations and portions of Arches, which decorated the sides of the structure, it may have stood some 100 to 125-feet in height. It may also been roughly 75 to 95-feet in width. The main foundation supported 2 Floors. The Front and Side Facades were decorated with Marble Statuary of various Roman Officials.

Possibly 200 Marble Columns graced the entirety of The Basilica's Facade. The Roof was said to have additional Frescoes and Statues dedicated to Caesar and His Family's Gods.

The Basilica Julia suffered from the same fire outbreaks which plagued Rome throughout it's long History. It was rebuilt at least twice during it's ''life''. It was partially destroyed when The Visigoths Sacked The City in 410 AD. Later, with the establishment of Christianity as Rome's principle religion, a portion of the ruins were converted in a Church.

Several massive columns were excavated in the 1850s, as well as several collapsed stairways – which exist today.

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#7002 10th Sep 2019 07:21:25

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON ANCIENT ROME
THE CURIA JULIA
The Curia Julia was a structure built in The City of Rome in 44 BC. It was The Senate House. Inside, as many as 300 Roman Government Officials would meet to debate and discuss. The site of The Curia was built over a similar type of Government structure dating to The Etruscan Period, before the Rise of Rome.

The Curia was destroyed by both fire and earthquake, many times during it's History and rebuilt every time, up to the 4th Century AD. Made from ''Roman Concrete'' covering Brick, over this was placed Marble slabs. The multi-floored structure measured 115-feet at it highest point. The original Foundation which featured a Columned Facade walkway, was 150-feet wide. The Entrance to The Senate Hall was sealed by a massive pair of Bronze Doors (told of in song and story for Centuries).

The interiors, wide impressive were mostly bare. The primary point next to The Halls, was an Altar dedicated to The Goddess ''Victory''. It was speculated that a massive Marble statute of Her once existed.

While very few of the original Buildings of Ancient Rome have survived time, Nature and War – The Curia Julia has, in part. While all of it;s adjoining outer structure have long ago collapsed or were torn down to be repurposed, The Main Hall still stands. The interiors have been partially restored (as of 2013).

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#7003 10th Sep 2019 08:38:41

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON ANCIENT ROME
THE ARCH OF TITUS
Dated to 82 AD, The Triumphal (Honorific) Arch of Titus was built and dedicated to Emperor Domitian to honor his Brother, Titus – in The City of Rome. The Arch commemorates Titus (and to a lessor degree His Father, Vespasian) – and his Victory over The Jews during The First Jewish War (Judaean Revolt 73 AD). The interior of The Arch features reliefs of Titus' entrance into Jerusalem, the sacking of Herod's Temple – as well as a depiction of The Jewish religious symbol The Menorah.

The building of Triumphal Arches were seen as the ultimate honor for a Conquering General of Emperor. Built throughout Rome, the iconic stone structures were duplicated throughout The Roman Empire (Provinces) – seen as a symbol of ''true'' Rome.

Constructed by famed Roman Architect Rabirius, The Arch is made of Marble. The many carved inscriptions were one plated in Bronze and Gold (long since stolen or removed). The Arch is 50-feet in height with a width of 45-feet. The actual inner Arch is 30-feet in width. The addition of the Column Facades on the outside of The Arch are dated to a 19th Century Restoration.

Surviving through disasters both man-made and natural, The Arch of Titus was part of The Medieval perimeter Walling of Rome (13th Century AD). Later, several Popes used The Arch as a ceremonial Site for Church Ritual (15th Century). The Middle Ages Walls long removed and repurposed.

The Arch of Titus is also credited for influencing the construction in 1806 of The French City of Paris ''Arch of Triumph''.

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#7004 10th Sep 2019 08:39:54

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON ANCIENT ROME
THE ARCH OF CONSTANTINE
Located in The City of Rome, in The Forum (facing The Palatine Hill) – The Arch of Emperor Constantine was constructed and dedicated in 315 AD. It was built to honor Emperor Constantine and his victory at The Battle of Milvian Bridge (312 AD). Imposing over The ''Triumphal Way'' (Via Triumphalis) – this road was the primary route taken by all Roman Generals when returning from a ''victorious'' War.

45-feet in height with a width of 30-feet. Unlike a traditional Arch which featured a single point of entrance, The Arch of Constantine has not only this principle feature, but two smaller supportive entrances. Made of Marble and Roman Brick, it was decorated with reliefs of not only The Battle of Milvian, but the ''triumphs'' of several other earlier Roman Emperors.

Whenever The Emperor Constantine returned to Rome, His Arch was the site of His ''welcoming home'', with ''great celebrations and dedications''.

One of the most visited and best preserved examples of Roman ''Arch Construction'' with regards to the many Frescoes and related carvings, The Arch of Constantine was also a popular subject for 18th and 19th Century Painters (featured in many Paintings).

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#7005 10th Sep 2019 09:21:26

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON ANCIENT ROME
THE HOUSE OF THE VESTALS
Located on the Eastern edge of The Great Roman Forum within The Ancient City of Rome (near The Palatine Hill), The House of The Vestals was the primary residence of The Priestesses of Vesta (or The Vestal Virgins). This religious Order was one of the most prestigious and well regarded of all within Rome. As such, the ''Security of Rome'' was seen as intertwined with The Vestal Vrigins. As long as they served Rome, so too would Rome endure.

Once a 2-story, Brick and Marble Structure, The House had 50-rooms with an elongated Atrium to it's Front. Imperial Trees (seen and blessed as ''sacred'') were planted to it's enclosed Rear. As such, it was said that some of the finest Gardens and Reflection Pools were located withing it's confines.

It's construction was dated to the 2nd Century BC. It was guarded by Imperial Soldiers, to keep out the curious and above all any Men (which were forbidden to enter).

With the introduction of Christianity, the need of The Vestals were ended (forbidden).The opulence of The House was maintained however, serving as a 4[sup]th[/sup] Century AD Royal Family Residence of Theodosius I.

Finally destroyed by fire and later earthquake, most of it's ruins were repurposed for other Roman Buildings. Today, The majority of it's Facade ruins and a collection of still standing Statuary (from it's Gardens) – remain.

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#7006 10th Sep 2019 09:22:26

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON ANCIENT ROME
THE BASILICA AEMILIA
A Roman Forum placed Structure, The Basilica Aemilia was used as (first) a Bank and later a series of Shops frequented by all Classes of Roman Citizens. It was built in 179 AD and ''Patroned'' by The House of General Marcus Nobilior. It was originally named The Basilica Fluvia (in honor of his Family Name)

Consisting of 2-Floors with a ''working'' Roof Section. The Aemilia was 390-feet in length an 100-feet wide. The Front and Back consisted of 30 Marbled Columns used both for decoration and structural support.

Added (expanded) in 55 AD, it was renamed The Basilica Paulli, it was set fire by Alaric of The Visigoths. Rebuilt again, The Basilica did not survive the Earthquake of 847 AD. It's rubble was repurposed for many other structures throughout Rome.

Only small portions of it's Foundation and a few broken Columns still remain.

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#7007 10th Sep 2019 10:44:26

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON WORLD WAR II WEAPONS
BRITISH AIRSPEED AS-10 ''OXFORD'' AIRCRAFT
The Airspeed AS-10 ''Oxford'' was a multi-purpose British RAF Aircraft first deployed in 1937. It served throughout World War II as a Trainer, Bomber and Navigational Plaftorm. Over 8,000 ''Oxford'' aircraft were produced until 1945. Many were also deployed to Commonwealth Nations (serving similar functions).

Derived from Commercial designs, The ''Oxford'' was was Crewed by (3). Measuring 35-feet in length, it had a wingspan of 54-feet. Powered by Twin Armstrong-Siddeley ''Cheetah'' Radial Engines, each produced 350-HP each. Airspeed was rated at 190-mph and The ''Oxford'' had an operational ceiling of 24,000-feet.

Armament was sparse, with a single Dorsal mounted .303 Vickers Machine Gun, The AS-10 could support (16) 12-pound Bombs.

The ''Oxford'' was exported to The Countries of Egypt and Turkey in the 1950s to support their newly formed Air Forces.

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#7008 10th Sep 2019 10:45:21

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON WORLD WAR II WEAPONS
FRENCH CAULDRON C-714 FIGHTER PLANE
The French Cauldron C-714 Fighter was developed for The French Air Force by Cauldron-Renault in 1936. A ''Light Fighter'', (90) such Models were produced. By 1939, and the start of The European War, only (6) C-714 were delivered and as such could not effectively be used in combat when Germany turned it's ''eyes towards'' France. The remaining Cauldron Fighters were eventually sent to England and flown by The Free Polish Squadrons, supporting Britain in their fight with Great Britain (1940).

Underpowered when compared to the vaunted German Messerschmitt 109-Class of Fighters, they did not ''score'' any known German ''kills''. However as a testament to The Polish Fliers, no Cauldron C-714s were lost to air combat.

Piloted by (1), The C-714 was 30-feet long with a wingspan of 30-feet. Powered by a single Renault V-12, Air-cooled Radial Engine. They were capable of 500-HP with an airspeed of 283-mph. The C-714 had an operational ceiling of 29,000-feet.

Armament included (4) wing-mounted 7.5mm Machine Guns. Many have survived as Museum pieces throughout The World.

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#7009 10th Sep 2019 10:46:37

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON WEAPONS OF WORLD WAR I
''ZODIAC'' AIRSHIPS
The ''Zodiac'' Airships were built by The Zodiac Society of France. The ''Zodiac'' was a Class of Airship designed for use by The French Army as Observation Platforms during World War I. The Society (Company) had been producing such since it was founded in 1898 (mostly Commercial marketing).

The ''Zodiac''-Class of Airships were non-rigid Models that were transported to launch locations via Horse Cart. Easily stored and readied for launch, they were initially popular as such with The Army.

A total of (13) ''Zodiac'' Airships would be produced, with only (4) seeing direct combat usage. Several other Models were exported to The Russian, Dutch and Belgium Armies as well.

Typically, a ''Zodiac'' was between 35 and 140-feet in length. Beams ranged from 10 to 40-feet in height. Cloth Canvas (treated) Skins were inflated with Air mixed with Helium Gas.

Command Carts (Gondolas), were made of light-weight metal piping (often open and non-paneled). This helped with air drag. A single Gas powered Engine (propeller) – which produced about 10-mph, provided power. Steerage was provided by a Rudder (and used very much as a Sea Vessels). The release of Gas caused it's rise and eventual descent.

The Company (after The War), stopped producing Airships and would begin to produce inflatable boats (many designs of which would be Contracted to several World Armies).

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#7010 10th Sep 2019 10:48:29

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON FIREARMS
FRENCH FUSIL GRAS MLE 1974 .59 CALIBER RIFLE
The French Model 1874 Fusil Gras Rifle was the primary issued rifle to French Military Forces in the 1870s. The weapon would be seen in use all the way into World War II (1940s). The initial designed Model was a .59 Caliber Brass Cartridge. A Bolt Action, they weighed 9-pounds and were52-inches long. Over 475,000 Model 1874s were manufactured.

Supporting a specialized ''Sword'' Bayonet measuring 3-feet, The Fusil Gras was copied by The Imperial German Army (Mauser Class). They were a reliable, and hearty Military Rifle.

The maximum effective range of The Model 1874 was 1,100-yards. Re-manufactured many time to keep up with changing caliber variations, it was a popular weapon with many smaller National Armies.

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#7011 10th Sep 2019 15:44:01

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON WEAPONS OF THE COLD WAR
SOVIET ''KRESTA I''-CLASS CRUISER
The ''Kresta I''-Class was a Guided Missile Cruiser, used by The Soviet Navy during The Cold War. The Ship Class was deployed in 1964. The long service Warship was in use until 1994 (later with The Russian Navy). Only (4) ''Kresta I'' were built. Although used as a Guided Missile Ship, The Class would be converted over to Anti-Submarine warfare duties in 1967. They would remain in that role until they were retired.

Displacing 6,000-tons, The ''Kresta I''-Class of Cruisers were 520-feet in length with a Beam of 56-feet. Propulsion was provided by (2) Steam Boilers, capable of producing 75,000-KW. Speed was rated at 40-mph on open Seas. The Class had a Mission range of over 12,000-miles.

Crewed by 350-Officers and Men, The ''Kresta I''-Class incorporated the most advanced Soviet Era Electronic detection and navigation systems produced. Armament included (2) SS-N-3 Anti-Ship Missiles, (2) SA-N-1 Surface to Air Missiles, (2) 57mm AA Guns and the ability to deploy (2) 21-inch Torpedoes.

The ''Kresta I''-Class also supported a Recon/Scout Helicopter (stored below Deck during routine movements). None of The Class were exported.

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#7012 10th Sep 2019 15:45:06

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON WEAPONS OF THE COLD WAR
SOVIET ''MOSKVA''-CLASS HELICOPTER CARRIER
The ''Moskva''-Class was a Helicopter Carrier Warship used by The Soviet Navy (and briefly Russian Navy), during the later phases of The Cold War. They were the first such Carrier Vessels deployed by The Soviet Navy. They were originally deployed in 1965, only (2) of The Class were produced for The Soviet Navy.

The primary Mission of The ''Moskva''-Class was to support Helicopters assigned to anti-Submarine Missions. They were part of The Black Sea Fleet for the entirety of their Service (Retired in 1991)

The Class displaced 17,000-tons. They measured 650-feet in length with a Beam of 115-feet. Power was provided by Twin Steam Turbines, supported by (4) Fire Pressure Boilers. These could produce 100,000-KW. Speed was rated at 22-mph.

Compliment for The ''Moskva''-Class was 850 Officers and Men. They used advanced Radar, Guidance and Navigational Systems indicative of this Class. The ''Moskva''-Class supported (18) Ka-25 Helicopters.

Armament included (2) SA-N-3 Surface to Air Missiles, (4) FRAS-1 Anti-Submarine Missiles, (2) RBU-6000 Anti-Submarine Rockets, (2) 57mm Guns and the capacity to deploy (10) 22-inch Torpedoes.

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#7013 10th Sep 2019 15:46:26

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON WEAPONS OF THE COLD WAR
USS ''FORREST SHERMAN''-CLASS DESTROYER
The ''Forrest Sherman''-Class of US Navy Destroyers were the first such Warships built for The US Navy after the end of World War II. The Class was for a period, the backbone of US Naval Surface Warfare. (18) were produced, but only (9) were deployed in Naval Battle Groups. The Class underwent many weapons upgrades during their Service (decommissioned in 1988).

The ''Forrest Sherman''-Class displaced 4,500-pounds. They were 418-feet long with a Beam of 45-feet. Power was provided by (4) Foster-Wheeler Boilers which powered (4) GE Turbines. 70,000-KW could be produced. Speed was rated at 38-mph.

Crew compliment were 330 Officers and Men. Armament included (3) 5-inch Guns, (4) 3-inch Guns and the capability of deploying (4) 21-inch Torpedoes. The ''Forrest Sherman''-Class also deployed The Hedgehog ASW Explosive Mine System. The Class served both in The Atlantic and Pacific Fleets.

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#7014 10th Sep 2019 15:47:22

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON FAMOUS SHIPS
USS ''BAINBRIDGE''
The USS ''Bainbridge'' was The US Navy's first Destroyer (then identified as ''Torpedo Boat Destroyers''). The ''Bainbridge'' was built in 1899 and launched in 1901. Part of The US Navy Asiatic Fleet, The ''Bainbridge'' would remain in Service through World War I as an Escort Ship in The Atlantic. She would be struck in 1919 and broken up in 1920.

''Bainbridge'' (which also was the namesake for Her Class, of which 13 were built) – displaced
430-tons. She was 245-feet long with a Beam of 24-feet. Twin Triple Steam Engines supported (4) Steam Boilers. They produced 4,000-KW. Surface speed was rated at 33-mph.

The Class was among the first US Navy Ships to use The ''Forecastle'' Superstructure feature, rather than the conventional ''Turtle'' design dominant in the later part of the 19[sup]th[/sup] Century. Crew compliment was 75 Officers and Men.

Armament included (2) 3-inch Main Guns, (5) 6-pounder Guns and the capability to deploy (2) 18-inch Torpedoes.

The Service included ''Presence'' Duty in The Philippine Islands, China (during The Russo-Japanese War) and during World War I, escorting Troop Transport and Cargo Merchants across The Atlantic. The ''Bainbridge'' tried on several occasions to target and sink German Submarines, but in both cases, The Germans escaped.

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#7015 10th Sep 2019 15:49:27

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON WEAPONS OF WORLD WAR I
USS ''WINSLOW''
Named for US Naval Officer of The American Civil War, Captain John Winslow – who sunk the infamous Confederate Raider, CSS ''Alabama'', The USS ''Winslow'' was an ''O'Brien''-Class Destroyer. She was launched in 1915, and with America's entrance into World War I – was deployed off The Coast of Ireland. She made several unsuccessful attacks against German Submarines during Her Service.

The ''Winslow'' would remain in Naval Service (Training) until 1933 (at which time She was renamed simply DD-53. She would be eventually scrapped in 1936.

Displacing 1,800-tons, The ''Winslow'' was 305-feet long with a Beam of 30-feet. Powered by (4) White & Forster Boilers and (2) Steam Turbines – producing 13,000-KW. Speed was rated at 34-mph. The''Winslow'' Crewed 101 Officers and Men.

Armament included (4) 4-inch Main Guns and (4) .50 Caliber Machine Guns. She also supported (8) 21-inch Torpedoes.

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#7016 10th Sep 2019 15:50:24

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON SHIPS
RADAR ''PICKET'' SHIP
A ''Picket Ship'' was a Class of Military Vessel developed and deployed as early as 1943 by Germany and Imperial Japan, and in 1944 by US and British Naval Forces. The Primary goal of these Ships was to serve as Radio and Electronic Monitoring Platforms by which to monitor Enemy transmissions. Such signals could be translated or triangulated for use in developing strategies for attack and defense.

While most were equipped with light Anti-Aircraft Guns and none supported Torpedo deployment (sacrificing needed space for Electronic equipment). In truth, support Ships such as Light Cruisers and Destroyers were used as protection for The Picket Ship.

Most early versions were converted Merchant Ships, whereas these Ships where also quite large to accommodate large amounts of Cargo. They displaced around 9,000 to 12,000-tons and were Crewed by between 65 to 80 Officers and Men.

Most Radar Picket Ships were equipped with (then) State of The Art Radar, Navigation and Electronics Detection equipment (much of which was Classified).

After World War II, and with the development of The ''Cold War'', The US Navy maintained Radar Picket Ships, building several dedicated Classes of such. Some were still converted smaller Vessels, used for monitoring Radio Transmissions in International Waters. Some were given added duties as ''Sonar Pickets'' – in the detection of Hostile Submarines. Much of these Vessels worked in tandem with the previously discussed ''Texas Tower'' Radio Towers of the late 1950s and early 1960s.

In addition to Radar Picket Ships, specially converted and modified Submarines were also deemed ''Radar Picket Ships''. These were useful for extreme clandestine Missions. Most Countries abandoned The Radar Picket Ship Classifications in lieu of specialized Aircraft (which can perform the same Missions more effectively).

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#7017 10th Sep 2019 15:51:44

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON FAMOUS MILITARY UNITS
US NAVY FIGHTER SQUADRON 111
Known as ''The Sundowners'', US Navy Fighter Squadron 111 was formed during World War II in 1942. Based at naval Air Station, North Island, California, They would eventually be armed with The F6F ''Hellcat'' Fighter Plane and deployed with The USS ''Hornet'' Carrier Battle Group. The Squadron is credited with shooting down 55 Japanese Fighters during The Battle of Guadalcanal (1942). After The War, ''The Sundowners'' would be reassigned to The USS ''Valley Forge'' Carrier Battle Group (1948).

While several Fighters were deployed with The USS ''Philippine Sea'' Battle Group, during the opening stages of The Korean War (1950), a ''Sundowner'' using a F9F ''Panther'' Fighter Jet, is credited with the first ever MIG-15 ''Kill'' (Jet to Jet Combat). The Squadron would participate in several Air Operations in the skies over Korea.

Although deactivated in 1959, ''The Sundowners'' would be reactivated in 1965. The Squadron served on most US Carrier Battle Groups during The Conflict and participated in almost every major Air Operation of The War.

The Squadron would also serve in specialized Air Operations in support of Operation ''Restore Hope'' (Somalia) in 1992. The Squadron would also become ''Movie Stars'' serving as The ''Soviet Fighters'' in The American Film ''Top Gun''.

The Squadron was deactivated in 1995. A resurrected ''version'' of ''The Sundowners'' was deployed in 2003 as VFC-13 Fighter Composite Squadron (consisting of several deactivate Fighters Groups, now merged.

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#7018 10th Sep 2019 15:52:40

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SPOTLIGHT ON WEAPONS OF THE COLD WAR
US MINNEAPOLIS-HONEYWELL ''WAGTAIL'' MISSILE
The ''Wagtail' Missile was developed by The Minneapolis-Honeywell Company, as an auxiliary Rocket System for US Bombers in the 1950s and early 1960s. The ''Wagtail'' was a Air to Surface Weapon, that was tested successfully.

Weighing 1,500-pounds, The ''Wagtail'' prototype was 6-feet long with a 12-inch diameter. A Solid Fueled propellant, The ''Wagtail'' could produce 9,900-IBF of Thrust and achieve 800-mph. The Rocket (air fired) could achieve a 1.5-mile range.

Envisioned as a Short Ranged, Solid Fueled Rocket. The ''Wagtail'' was also designed to support a Low-Yield Nuclear Warhead. Other advancements were to include ground following Radar (''Nape of Earth'' Targeting). An advanced booster System was also designed to ''push'' The Warhead ''away'' from the blast generated by Rocket separation.

While a ''Rear Firing'' Model was sought more, a series of miscalculations in later Testing showed flaws with The ''Wagtail'' (in particular Warhead protection when jettisoned), - this failure caused The Program to be canceled before actual Aircraft Testing could begin.

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#7019 10th Sep 2019 16:58:58

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDIEVAL CULTURE AND CUSTOMS
THE MONASPA
The Monaspa were an Elite Military Unit of the early Medieval Kingdom of Georgia. Dominant from the 11th to 12th Century AD, they served as both Royal Bodyguard and Standing Army for The Kings of Georgia.

The Force were considered ''Shock Troops'', utilizing Heavy Cavalry and ''Melee'' Tactics. The Monaspa were composed of what would be considered ''Lessor'' Lords (Noblemen), who although poor by other Kingdom standards, held sufficient Title to merit their position. At their height of recruitment, over 5,000 Monaspa existed.

Most were skilled Horsemen, Masters of The Sword and Lance. Various forms of Armor and Mail were worn. All equipment was provided by The King.

Later in their History, to supplement their losses in battle, The Georgian Kings began to augment The Monaspa with ''Foreign Mercenaries and Steppe (Rus) Nomads''. While The Monaspa were ''paid'' by their Leige, the source of their funding (Royal Treasuries), were greatly reduced when these new ''Recruits'' demanded ''more pay''.

Well trained, The Monaspa were ''personally supervised'' by The King. Later, when Military Reforms were established under the Reign of King David IV, The Monsapa were better opponents against their well established Enemies, The Ottomans. The Force won several key battles in The Region.

After the 12th Century AD, the majority of Monaspa were given Lands and more substantial Titles. As true Landowners, they began to stop volunteering for fighting. As such they ceased to exist as a fighting Force.

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#7020 10th Sep 2019 17:37:54

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDIEVAL CULTURE AND CUSTOMS
SPASPET
Possibly dating to the 3rd Century BC, in Ancient Iberia (later The Kingdom of Georgia, (12th Century AD), the Title of Spaspet was comparable to The English Office of High Constable. Appointed by The King, The Spaspet was not only responsible for enforcing The Kings Law and Edicts, but He also served in a limited Military capacity.

Militarily, The Spaspet would recruit or conscript Commoners (Serfs or Peasants) and organize them into Armies. The Spaspet did not have to lead these Men into battle, however.

The Spaspet was also NOT a ''gifted'' Title, in that it was awarded from Father to Son. The Title was awarded by a King successively (to each new Person). Blood relation was not a requirement or right (unlike other Kingdoms).

Spaspet Control would exist well past The Middle Ages, with The Office lasting well into the 19th Century – before it was dissolved.

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#7021 11th Sep 2019 17:10:41

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON ANCIENT ROME
NUMERUS
In The Ancient Roman Army (Legions), the term ''Numerus'' was associated with Barbarian Allies – who fought with Rome. These were most often found in far flung Colonies and Provinces. In many cases, various Tribes (who were Allied), were in ''Blood Feuds'' with rivals Tribes, would easily align and fight ''with Rome''. In most cases though, after a rival Tribe was destroyed, they would ''turn against'' their Roman Allies.

Rome classed these Numerus into States known as ''Foederati''. In addition to supplying Forces, these Tribal Kingdoms would be given various Roman ''courtesies''. This might bye trade concerns, monies or even being Overlords of subjugated Nations (Rival Tribes).

Often given very basic often outdated Roman equipment, The Numerus would none the less still be used into the 3rd Century AD. Some examples were The Huns, Alans and Visigoths.

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#7022 11th Sep 2019 21:50:52

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON ANCIENT ROME
TESSERARIUS
In The ancient Roman Legions (Army), The Position of a ''Tesserarius'' was one which was occupied by either a Senior Legionnaire or Junior Grade Officer. The Title was used in a Garrison (mostly when on Campaign). The Tesserarius selected a Guard Mount which monitored various assigned Posts throughout The Fort or Camp throughout the night. Much as in Modern Armies, ''Passwords'' and ''Counter Passwords'' were devised. These would be given to a Guard Mount to be called out to an unknown person. A ''friendly contact'' would ''know'' the proper response to the ''Call of The Day''.

The Tesserarius was identified by His long, Wooden Staff (6-feet). This was topped by a Wooden or Iron Ball. As much of a symbol of His ''Position'' as much as a weapon (club), they were most dominant in the late 2nd Century BC to 3rd Century AD.

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#7023 11th Sep 2019 21:53:15

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON ANCIENT ROME
TRIONES
The ''Rank'' or identifier of ''Triones'' was seen in The Republic and Imperial Roman Legions, from the 3rd BC to The 4th AD. In short, The Triones was a simple basic Recruit to The Legion (but not Legionnaire).

Great care was placed into the selection of a Triones in the beginning (BC). One had to be Male, in ''good health''. Eye and teeth were examined – as well as other ''defects which might pose so an issue that it would effect a Group'' (eg :Lameness, etc). Triones were examined by a Physician of The Legion. Even overall weight was considered.

It could take up to 6 months for a Triones to be properly trained. Constant drill (marching), running, climbing, packing and unpack proper equipment and of course digging and establishing a Camp – were just a small part of early Legion training.

Of course, the primary training needed was not only how to ''move'' as a Unit (Formations), but the intense training in the use of Roman Weaponry. The Gladius Sword (in training form) was wooden and weighted to be twice as heavy as a real one. This tactic created strike strength and accuracy.

Upon initial graduation from Triones, a Soldier was identified as a Miles (or Private, comparable with the ''modern'' Infantryman). Any form of specialized training was begun from this point. After a varied training period, a ''Legionnaire'' was born.

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#7024 12th Sep 2019 18:05:00

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON ANCIENT ROME
IMMUNES
The Title of ''Immunes'' was awarded to those Roman Soldiers who had (or found to possess) – specialized skills, above that of a common Legionnaire. However, before ''embracing'' this skill, a chosen Soldier had to establish his abilities as a ''basic'' Recruit'' or Triones. After graduation, and His promotion to Miles, these soldiers were selected to become Immunes.

Secondary training varied with the Soldiers skill. It could be Engineering, Carpentry, Enforcing of Laws with The Legion (a ''Military Policeman'' of sorts), or even Medicine (orderly, etc) – could be chosen.

The Immunes were seen predominately in the later stages of The Republic and throughout The Imperial Period (with similar positions seen in The Eastern Empire as well).

Immunes were paid more than a regular Legionaire – and were exempt from Guard Duties or manual labor.

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#7025 12th Sep 2019 19:05:04

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON ANICENT ROME
COHORTES URBANAE
The Roman ''Cohortes Urbanaes'' (or better known as ''Urban Cohorts'' were a form of Police Agency during The Republic Period of Ancient Roman History. Related to The Vigiles (who were both Night Police and Firefighters), The Urban Cohort were heavily armed and trained in both Military Tactics and Riot Control Techniques.

The Cohort was born out of the necessity to maintain law and order with The City of Rome. Roving Gangs of ''Cutthroats, Thieves and Criminals'', roamed wild through Rome's streets. The Vigiles were simply not trained (nor large enough a Force) to curb them. This couples with the fact that these ''Gangs'' were often paid by rival Roman Politicians (to make the other look bad in the eyes of The People), caused an almost unbearable situation.

The Emperor's Personal Guard – The Praetorians, were sometimes called out to deal with riots and civil disturbances. But hey were more often than not – either too heavy handed or themselves ''politically motivated''.

The Cohort were in essence, a form of Legionnaire (and often looked upon as such). They wore the same uniform and carried the same weapons (including The iconic Scutum Shield). Unlike The Vigiles, The Cohort patrolled both day and night.

The Cohort was not to be used in battle – except in the most severe of needs (towards the end of Imperial Rome).

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