#5676 16th Sep 2019 14:43:58

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON WEAPONS OF WORLD WAR II
US M-1 90MM ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN
The US Model 1 (and subsequent Models 2 and 3), was the principle ground Anti-Aircraft Gun used by The US Military during World War II. It would remain as such until the end of The Korean War in 1953. Originally deployed in 1938, The 90mm Gun would be used by US Army National Guard and Reserve Units until 1960.

While an effective Anti-Aircraft weapon. The 90mm Gun was also adapted for use as an Anti-Armor Guns as well, being mounted on various late World War II (1944) ''Tank Busters'' (Specialized Armor Tracked Vehicles). These Models would be seen in many European battles in the ''push'' for The City of Berlin (Germany) and in Italy.

The M-1 Version weighed over 18,000-pounds and was mounted onto a mobile (circular) Base, capable of traversing 360-degrees with a 90 elevation. A Crew of (7) was needed. The M-1 Version used a 24-inch HE (Fragmentation) Shell, with a 63,000-foot maximum effective range.

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#5677 16th Sep 2019 19:07:59

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON WEAPONS OF WORLD WAR II
GERMAN HAFTHOHLLADUNG ANTI-TANK GRENADE
Deployed in 1942, The Hafthohlladung was an Anti-Tank Grenade weapon (often confused by The allies as a Mine). The Grenade was a magnetically attached device which was Cone-shaped. It held roughly 5-pounds of shaped HE (Fragmentation) Explosive.

Rather than being attached to Enemy Armor Treads (to cripple said Vehicle in any forward movement), The Hafthohllafung was attached to the Armor Plating of The Tank. The shaped charge (which detonated in 7-seconds from arming), directed the blast ''inward''. This ensured that the Enemy Crew inside were fatally wounded or killed.

Over 500,000 Hafthohlladung Devices were built and deployed with The German Wehrmacht.

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#5678 16th Sep 2019 19:11:32

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON WEAPONS OF WORLD WAR II
GERMAN FLETTNER FL-195 GYRODYNE
A ''Gyrodyne'' was a type of Aircraft with combined Helicopter (Rotor) with conventional (Prop) driven Aircraft. With the ''theory'' was experimented in Countries such as Britain and France (and to a small part The US), it was The German Flettner Company who began to experiment with a version of Gyrodyne for Military usage.

Their prototype was called The Flettner Fl-185. Piloted by (1), the prototype measured 35-feet in length and was 5-feet in width. The primary Rotor Blade (Top) had a radius of 40-feet. The Front propellers were wooden and ''pitch synched'' (Metal versions were to be produced later).

Powered by a single Bramo 314C 7-Cylinder Engine, 150-HP was achieved. The prototype achieved several hundred feet in hover. First flown for The German Government in 1939, they were not altogether too interested in The Flettener. The Company had hoped that it would be adopted into The Navy as a Ship Launched Reconnaissance and Army Observation platform.

Later, in 1944-45, Versions of The Flettner would in fact be developed and used by The Kreigsmarine in pretty much the fashion envisioned by The Flettner Company. The prototype did not survive The War.

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#5679 16th Sep 2019 19:43:35

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON WEAPONS OF WORLD WAR II
FRENCH BRANDT MLE 27/30 81MM MORTAR
The French Brandt Model 1927/1930 81mm Mortar, was designed from Polish and British Military Versions. The Mortar was a standard Infantry weapon used by French (Free) Forces in World War II. Over 1,000 (with 8,000 produced until the late 1950s) were produced prior to the start of The European War (1939). The somewhat long service Squad Weapon was also used in The French Indo-Chinese War of the 1950s, and was also adopted (few) by The North Vietnamese and Viet Cong Forces, during The US War in Southeast Asia.

The Brandt Mortar was 125-pounds (with support base). The tube was 4-feet in length. Shells (which were deployed in a variety of types), weighed between 7 and 14-pounds. They were timed (delayed) fuses – effective at detonation of 5 to 10-seconds.

Elevation (Hang of Shell), was rated at 1.7-miles (at 45 to 85-Degrees). A Crew of (2) could deploy up to 18-rounds per minute.

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#5680 16th Sep 2019 21:48:41

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON WEAPONS OF THE VIETNAM WAR
US HELIO AU-24 ''STALLION'' GUNSHIP
The unusual Helio AU-24 ''Stallion'' was Utility Transport Plane, modified into a ''Gunship''. Only (20) AU-24s were built by The Helio Company. The primary purchaser of The AU-24 ''Stallion'' The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). During The early phases of The Vietnam War (1964), The US Air Force purchased (18) of The AU-24 for use.

Both a Counter Insurgent and Surveillance Craft, The ''Stallion'' was overshadowed by the more powerful US Douglas AC47D ''Spooky'' and later ''Puff, The Magic Dragon'' Airships. Most were exported tp The Khmer Air Force (Cambodia, 1972). The AU-24 was in limited service there until 1993.

The ''Stallion'' was 40-feet in length with a wingspan of 41-feet. Crewed by (2), The AU-24 could transport up to (9) Passengers (when in a Transportation configuration). Power came from a single Pratt and Whitney (Canada) PTA6 Turboprop Engine. It produced an airspeed of 216-mph. The AU-24 had an operational ceiling of 25,000-feet.

As a Gunship, The ''Stallion'' was armed with with (1) 20mm Rotary Barrel Cannon and the capability to support up to (5) Air to Surface Missile of Rockets (roughly 5-inch Fragmentation Warheads).

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#5681 17th Sep 2019 16:02:38

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON FAMOUS SHIPS
THE ''KOTETSU''
Built in France (1863) and launched in 1864, the Ironclad-Ram which would known as The ''Kotetsu'' started out it's life as The American Confederate Warship CSS ''Stonewall''. Built in violation of an established regulation between France and The United States to NOT support The Confederate ''cause''. She was not only built – but armed and Crewed in Europe. Perceived as ''so deadly'', Federal Warships were stationed outside of French waters to monitor and possibly engage Her, when she went to Sea.

Doing so in 1864, Her size and impressive armament caused The Federat Warships to steer clear. As The ''Stonewall'', She made for The Caribbean – in hopes of eventually moving off The Coast of South Carolina. There, ''Stonewall'' would have attacked any Federal Shipping as well as support moves again Union General William Sherman and his infamous ''March to The Sea''.

However, when The ''Stonewall'' reached The Caribbean for supplies, Her Captain learned that The Confederate had surrendered – ending The War. Rather than surrender ''Stonewall'' to Federal Authority, he ''sold'' Her to Cuba (for $16.000.00 USD). Later, The Cuban Government sold ''Stonewall'' back to The US. She remained in US control until 1868, when ''Stonewall' was sold to The Imperial Japanese Navy (for $30,000.00 USD).

Seen as part of The Japanese Modernization of it's Military, She was named '' Kotetsu''. Serving in several capacities, ''Kotetsu'' was used in several rebellions against The Imperial Government. By 1888, ''Kotetsu'' was regulated to Harbor Patrol Duties. She was scrapped soon afterward. At one point in History, next to The French Ironclad Warship ''Gloire'', She was considered the most powerful Ironclad ever built.

''Kotetsu'' displaced 1,385-tons. She was 195-feet long with a Beam of 15-feet. Powered by Twin Double Reciprocating Steam (Coal fed) Engines – which could achieve 19-mph. In Her American Civil War configuration, ''Kotetsu'' crewed 135 Officers and Men.

Armament changed during Her Service. Her American Civil War deployment included (1) 300-pound Armstrong Cannon and (2) 70-pound Armstrong Cannon. Her Armor plated Hull and partial Superstructure ranged from 3.5 to 5-inches (inclusive of Her Iron Ram, which extended 15-feet).

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#5682 21st Sep 2019 14:57:40

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON AWARDS, MEDALS AND RIBBONS
GERMAN HIGH SEAS FLEET BADGE
The German ''High Seas Fleet'' Badge was a Combat issued Service Award of The Kriegsmarine (Navy), during World War II. It was first awarded in 1941 as a means of awarding German Sailors (Officers and Enlisted Class), who ''struggled against The British Fleet''.

In addition to ''Combat Qualification'', a German Kriegsmariner had to have been assigned to wither a Battleship of Heavy Cruiser. It was considered ''below'' The German ''Iron Cross'' Award.

The Badge is a circular device which featured a Silver Metal Center – portraying the frontal view of a stylized German Warship. This image was encircled by a Golden Wreath, which was connected with a Golden German Swastika insignia.

The High Seas Award was rendered obsolete when The Krtiegsmarine was disbanded at the end of World War II (1945).

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#5683 21st Sep 2019 15:20:14

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDALS, AWARDS AND RIBBONS
US KOREAN WAR SERVICE MEDAL
The US military Korean war Service Medal was authorized by (then) US President Harry Truman in 1954. The Medal is awarded to any Member of The US Military who served in The Korean War (in Country, in The Skies over on off Coastal Waters), between 1951 and 1954 (although The War ended in 1953, Occupation Forces were still granted The Medal).

Seen to compliment the already issued ''United Nations Korean Service Medal'', after 1954 – The War Service Medal was discontinued for issue. Currently, The Korean Defense Service Medal is awarded, to any Service Member to has served in The Republic of South Korea since 1954 to date (no combat criteria is required). A War Service Medal Recipient cannot be awarded The Defense Service Medal.

The Medal is a circular device of Bronze color. The Front of The Medal features a typical Korean Temple Archway, with the inscription ''KOREAN SERVICE'' inscribed . The Reserve of The Medal bears The Taegeuk (or multi-colored National Symbol which appears on The South Korean national Flag). The inscription ''UNITED STATES OF AMERICA'' is present. Itwas common for some Soldiers to inscribed their Service dates onto the Reserve of The Medal (by Civilian Contract).

The Ribbon portion of The Korean Service Medal is a Light Blue Field, with a Vertical White Stripe. This was in honor of The Flag of The United Nations Coalition of Forces who fought in The Korean War (1950-1953).

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#5684 21st Sep 2019 17:02:09

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON AWARDS, MEDALS AND RIBBONS
US ARMY SIGNAL CORPS. AVIATOR BADGE
One of the first versions of a Pilot Badge created for use in The US Army (1914), The Signal Corps. Aviation Qualification Badge was first issued to famed future US Air Force General (then Lieutenant) Henry Arnold.

The Badge, was a simple Brass Colored Tab Device, into which was inscribed ''MILITARY AVIATOR''. Suspended by twin chain attachments, was an Eagle Image. The Eagle was ''perched'' (clutching) a Bar, upon which was affixed The US Army Signal Corps. insignia of Twin Semaphore Flags.

The criteria for award was a Service Member (Office or Enlisted) to have achieved a platform height of 2,500-feet. This could be by aircraft or balloon. ''Control;'' over the Platform had to have been achieved. A ''Pilot'' had to further make a ''controlled'' landing with at least 500-pounds of additional weight. The final qualifier was to make a 20-mile ''flight''.

The Signal Corps. was a short lived award to The Army Flying Corps. It would be replaced in 1915 by traditional Military Aviation Pilot ''Wings'' Qualification Badges (which also required more qualification criteria). Those few awarded it, were still authorized to wear them for the ''life'' of their career.

The Badge was worn on the Right side of the Uniform, above the Pocket Flap. However, when a standard issued ''Wing'' Badge was issued, those so awarded wore them in addition, as a Signal Corps. Badge. Photographs show it placed on the Pocket Flap.

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#5685 21st Sep 2019 17:22:21

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDALS, AWARDS AND RIBBONS
US ARMY OVERSEAS SERVICE STRIPE
The Overseas Service Stripe (as it is officially known), is referred to rather, as The Army Combat Service Stripe. It was originally created (in another form), during World War I and known as The ''Overseas Service Chevron''. This was a ''V''-shaped cloth device of Olive Drab Green coloring. This version was worn on the Left Sleeve (above The Cuff) of the Uniform. It was awarded to US Army Soldiers who served in Combat in France. There were also (3) different colors other than Olive drab to denote time served in such combat theaters. These were Silver, Gold and Powder Blue (each denoting a longer period).

During World War II, the current form of Stripe was adopted. This was a Gold colored Horizontal cloth device, roughly 2-inches in length. It was sewn (placed) in very much the same was as it's WWI ''cousin'' – on the Left Uniform Cuff Sleeve, but now only on the Dress Uniform of The Period.

Each Stripe represents 6-months of deployed (actual) combat service. If a ''Tour of Duty'' is 1 year (12-months), then a Soldier wears two such Stripes, sewn Vertically (one on top of the other). There is no number limit to the amount worn on the Left Sleeve.

To current date, the Recipient of the highest amount of ''Combat Stripes'' was former US Army General William Westmoreland. He was awarded a total of (16) such stripes – representing Combat Service deployments to both Korea and Vietnam. This would represent (8) years of Combat experience!

The Device is still in active Service with The US Army today, for both Officer and Enlisted Personnel.

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                                                                                                   (Magnified View)

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#5686 21st Sep 2019 17:45:04

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDALS, AWARDS AND RIBBONS
SOVIET MEDAL OF NAKHIMOV
The ''Nakhimov Medal'' was a Medal of Military Award, given to Sailors and Officers of The former Soviet Navy. It was a World War II created award, of which over 14,000 were issued. The Medal was named in honor of Admiral Nakhimov, who commanded both Imperial Russian Land and Naval Forces at The Siege of Sevastopol – during The Crimean War of the 1850s.

The Medal was created in 1944 to honor those Soviet Naval Personnel who ''defended (living and dead), The Coastal Regions of The Soviet Union'' against German attack.

The Medal was a Gold colored device, which on The Front had the profile image of Admiral Nekhimov (in 19th Century Field Uniform). His Rank and Name are inscribed, as is a small Wreath of Honor – bearing the Soviet ''Star'' insignia.

The Ribbon color (for The Medal) was originally Grey with (3) Vertical White Stripes. A later 1960s forward Ribbon Version featured a Dark Blue Ribbon Field with (3) Vertical Stripes.

The Rear of The Medal bears (in Russian) the phrase ''FOR BATTLE MERIT''. It was one of the few Soviet Medals recognized by The Russian Federation (after the demise of The Soviet Union), in 1992. It would be retained for 2 more years.

It is no longer issued.

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#5687 22nd Sep 2019 17:29:51

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDALS, AWARDS AND RIBBONS
GERMAN BLUTORDEN MEDAL
The German ''Blutorden'' (or ''Blood Order'') was a highly coveted Political award of The Nazi Party. It was created in 1934 in commemoration of The Party's 1923 ''Munich Putsch'' (aka ''The Beer Hall Coup''). It was given to those Supporters of Adolph Hitler who marched with The Nazi Party in Munich. The ''Blood Order'' was also worn on various High Ranking German Officer's uniforms – throughout World War II.

The Medal was made from pure Silver (circular in pattern). The Front bears the image of The German Eagle, perched over a solid Wreath. The inscription reads ''NOVEMBER 9, 1923 – MUNICH'' .The Rear of The Medal featured the facade of The Feldernhalle Building in Munich, which was a commemoration monument build to The Bavarian Army (1841). A Party Swastika is placed over The Building.

The Ribbon was bright Red with Silver and Black Striped edging. It was the 5th most important Nazi Party Political Medal Awarded to Party Members.

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#5688 23rd Sep 2019 16:04:01

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON HISTORY
FRENCH ''COUREUR DES BOIS''
With French colonization of The ''New World'' (North America), came Settlers, Soldiers and Explorers. One such early ''Explorer'' turned Trader, were The Coureur des Bois'' or ''Runner of Woods''. These were French-Canadian Fur Trappers, anxious on capitalizing on Beaver Pelts (an exportable commodity to Europe in the 17th Century).

The Coureur des Bois were ''rugged Men'', who had adapted to the often harsh environment of Canada and The American far North Regions. Such tough in fact, the ''average'' Settler dared not go (for fear of Native American attack or harsh Winter conditions).

The ''Wood Runners'' learned the ways and language of the local Tribes – developing their Trade and hunting practices regarding trapping Beavers. Often, they paid for such skins (pelts) after establishing themselves with said Tribes. In the beginning, The Coureurs were met with suspicion and attacks by the many Tribes. Later, a somewhat ''trust'' was established (often spurred by the inter-marriage of them with Native American women).

The ''Wood Runners'' would migrate into what would later become the Northern portion of The United States. Many would evolve into that iconic (and still in existence) ''Mountain Man''.

The Coureur des Bois would become valuable with regards to being used as Scout and translators for The French Army in their occupations of ''New France'' (Canada). Their knowledge was also seen in their learning of specific Native American War tactics, which would translate well when The French and Indian Wars (against England) began in the 1750s.

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#5689 23rd Sep 2019 16:28:46

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDALS AWARDS AND RIBBONS
GERMAN LUFTWAFFE ''LONG SERVICE'' MEDAL
Introduced in 1939, The German Luftwaffe (Air Force) ''Long Service'' Medal was awarded to German Luftwaffe Service Members who had achieved a specific number of years of Military active Service within that Branch.

The Medal was awarded for 4, 12, 18, 25 and even 40 years of Service. They were Classed from 1st to 3rd Class bestowments. The Luftwaffe included service with the former Air Branch Services of The Imperial German and later Reichswehr (Inter-War Period). It would remain a Military issue until the end of The War in 1945.

Silver and Gold (depending on Class), The device was a Maltese Cross with an embossed (raised) German Eagle on it's Front. The Ribbon (Blue in Color), featured a Silver Nazi Party Eagle and Swastika Clasp, centered.

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#5690 23rd Sep 2019 16:30:04

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDALS, AWARDS AND RIBBONS
GERMAN HONOR GUARD CHEVRON
The Honor Guard Chevron was a cloth device created by Adolph Hitler, to identify His special ''Guard of Honor''. The device was a ''V''-shaped image, composing of (3) joined White stripes. The Chevron was worn on the Left Uniform Sleeve (on both Service and Dress Uniforms).

Coveted by The German Waffen-SS, The ''Honor Stripe'' was also authorized for wear by Soldiers who were part of The Allgemeine Division (early SA) or any Military Member who had joined The Nazi Political Party in 1933.

Later (1942), Members of Germany's Security Services and Wehrmacht Officers were allowed to wear The ''Honor Chevron'', providing they were Party Members and had taken The ''Sworn Oath'' to Hitler as ''Fuhrer''. Issuance ending with the end of The War in 1945.

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#5691 23rd Sep 2019 16:51:47

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDALS, AWARDS AND RIBBONS
BRITISH MILITARY CROSS
The British Military issued Military Cross, was created in 1914 – for actions during World War I. Approved by the reigning Monarch, it is given for ''acts of exemplary gallantry during Wartime. Any Officer or Enlisted of any Branch can be awarded The Military Cross.

Originally, The Cross was only issued to high-ranking British Officers. It is issued in 3 Classes. To date, over 50,000 have awarded. It can also be awarded to a Service Member who had died as a result of the ''heroic action''.

The Cross is a Silver elongated Maltese Cross. The Bars of The Cross features the current Monarchs Signet (initials). Each Bar flank is engraved with a Royal Coronet (Crown). The Ribbon is a series of White and Purple vertical Stripes (2 White, 1 Purple). It is common for an engraving featuring the name of the Act (battle) along with the Recipient name and years of award (Rear of Device).

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#5692 23rd Sep 2019 17:51:43

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDALS, AWARDS AND RIBBONS
US ''BUTLER'' MEDAL
As we have seen, The American Military did not have any specific Medals or related Awards issued to it's Army or Navy – that served during The ''Wear Between The States'' (1861-1865). The then  ''recently created'' Congressional Medal of Honor (CMH, The Nation's highest and most scared of Awards) – was often ''incorrectly issued'' (to Acts, often Heroic and worthy – but not necessarily with the criteria of The CMH). A much later ''Civil War Service Medal'' WAS created by The US War Department in 1905, and awarded to those Soldiers and Sailors who served during The War (in any Military capacity).

Also as written, several unauthorized Medals (eg ''The Kerney Cross'') were created by noted Union Civil War General Officers. These were awarded to certain Officers and Men within The General's Division of related command – who had performed a specific ''act of heroism or gallantry''. Coveted by their Recipient's long after the end of The War on 1865, as stated The US Government does not recognize them.

In particular, The ''Butler''Medal – was created by Union Army General Benjamin Butler (nicknamed ''The Beast'' by Citizens of the captured Confederate City of New Orleans in 1862), it was also given with some controversy. The Medals were given (mostly), to some of the first African-American Soldiers to be allowed to openly serve in The Union Army (a result of The Emancipation Proclamation of 1862). General Butler financed the creation of The Medals from his own pocket and award to various Black Soldiers of His ''Army of The James''. Indicative of Butler's Command, (14) African-American Soldiers would also be awards The Congressional Medal of Honor for combat actions during The War.

The ''Butler'' Medal was a Silver, circular Device. The Front bears the engraving of African-American Soldiers charging an Enemy Fortification. The Latin phrase, ''Ferro lls Libertas Perveniet'' or translated to ''Freedom Shall Be Theirs by The Sword''. Another smaller inscription on the lower front read ''US COLORED TROOPS''. The Rear of the device featured a wreath with the phrase ''COURAGE” and an engraved wording of the particular Campaign the Recipient earned The Medal for.

The Ribbon was a series of Red, White and Blue vertical Stripes. An attached Silver Clasp read ''ARMY OF THE JAMES””

The actual number of Recipient's is unknown as no official records of issue were kept (or survived). Those examples still in existence are in private collections.

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#5693 24th Sep 2019 15:54:38

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDALS, AWARDS AND RIBBONS
THE ''PALMETTO'' MEDAL
The ''Palmetto'' Medal was an official award given to survivors of The Palmetto Regiment of Volunteers (Militia), who fought in The Mexican War of 1846-1848. The Regiment was one of the first into a captured Mexico City, Mexico – and raised their Militia Banner, The ''Palmetto Flag'' from the Central Public Court (Forum). To honor their courage, The South Carolina State Legislature authorized the production of these Medals.

First issued in 1848, Gold versions were given to Officers of The Regiment, with Silver to Non-Commissioned Officers and Enlisted. The Medal was circular in pattern. The Front bore an engraving of The State Seal of The State of South Carolina (upon which The Palmetto Tree features prominently). Engraved around The Seal are the words ''Vera Cruz, Contreras, Churubusco, Chapultepec and Garita de Belen'' (the names of the major engagements That The Regiment fought during The War).

A Green cloth Ribbon was strung thru The Device, which allowed for it to be worn around the neck. Actual numbers issued are now unknown, with many Records having been lost during The American Civil War of 1861-1865.

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#5694 30th Sep 2019 02:11:59

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDALS, AWARDS AND RIBBONS
GERMAN CLOSE COMBAT CLASP
Awarded during World War II (around 1942), by The German Army – The ''Close Combat'' Clasp was often seen by soldiers as being a ''higher Honor'' that the iconic ''German Iron Cross'' The Close Combat Clap was warded for having been engaged in ''close quarters, hand to hand combat with an Enemy''.

Three Class were known to have existed. Gold, Silver and Brone. Each was awarded for a progressively larger number of engagements, with Bronze (the lowest) – issued for (15) and the highest (Gold) being at least 50.

The Clasp was worn on the Left Uniform Pocket of both the Dress and Fatigue Uniform. Both German Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS were awarded The Close Combat Clasp. It is estimated that close to 20 Million World War II Soldiers were awarded this combat honor. The Award was abandoned with The Fall of The Third Reich in 1945.

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#5695 3rd Oct 2019 13:12:46

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Re: History Thread

The admin team have decided to close the History thread with immediate effect and move all articles off over to the main StrongholdNation website. From now on, you can access all articles on https://www.strongholdnation.co.uk/history/glossary or through the site navigation menu.

Crusader1307 will still be occasionally posting articles here & we will be keeping you all up-to-date on all things history in the meantime, so please do not forget to check back here!


The fields have eyes, and the woods have ears.
— Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales: The Knight's Tale

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#5696 11th Oct 2019 04:00:33

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Re: History Thread

Hello All......

Just an Update. Much ''blood and gore'' have been spilt in the transfer of Files (and Photos and et al)  big_smile. We have so far transferred roughly 650 Articles....Jump over and check out some of the Older Posts.

Trudging On........
Crusader 1307

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