#1 15th Jan 2015 23:48:17

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History Thread

On This Day in History.......



Queen Elizabeth I was crowned on January 15, 1559 in Westminster Abbey! Always my personal favorite of the English Monarchy (other than her Father Henry!) wink

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#2 29th May 2015 10:49:30

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON 19TH CENTURY WEAPONS
THE FLYSSA SWORD


Developed by The Berber Nations (particularly The Kabyles Tribe of Morocco), The Flyssa Sword was in The Talwar family of weapons. Known for their lack of hand guard or cross hilt, blades were single-handled and ranged anywhere from 12 to 15 inches in length. They also featured a slimmer, tapered tip which flanged back to a flatter middle and then continuing to a normal sword width towards the back. These blades were extremely sharp and designed to break open Chain Mail (still used in the Region). The Flyssa would eventually disappear from use by the 19th Century.

                                                                   Flyssa_Sword.jpg

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#3 29th May 2015 17:52:35

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON 19TH CENTURY WEAPONS
THE MAMELUKE SWORD


Developed from The Mamluk Empire of the 12th Century, and in the Shamshir family of weapons, The Mameluke was a popular design of sword in Europe and The United States. Generally in the single-bladed with a curved blade (being 35-inches long), the most notable design change by Europeans was to lessen the curve of the blade. The weapon features a plain ivory or bone handle with a flanged attached pommel (built into the grip). The cross guard/hilt were known to be plain. Scabbards were often unadorned. The Mameluke was extremely popular by most Napoleonic Armies (especially among cavalry - of which a heavier model was fashioned). These trooper blades ranged around 45-inches long. The Mameluke is still an iconic piece of Ceremonial wear for The United States Marine Corps. They have used the sword style since 1807 as the official sword for both Officers and NCOs.

                                                                 Mameluke_Sword.jpg

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#4 29th May 2015 19:38:46

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON 19TH CENTURY WEAPONS
THE DALHGREN GUN

                         
Developed and designed by American Naval Officer John Dahlgren in the 1860s, he was inspired by an accidental explosion of a cannon he witnessed during The Mexican-American War. Poorly made and overcharged gun barrels were a problem in military service. Dahlgren set about to develop a weapons system that would revolutionize how cannon were constructed. Cast in a smooth, rounded shape, the barrels resembled "soda bottles". This shape was important due to how it pulled away the explosive gases from the initial charge. Made in smoothbore and rifled, Dalhgren also perfected a form of shell that featured a low and flat trajectory impact for use with his guns. His smaller designs were used to create The Boat Howitzers. These were specialized raft-like boats (that drew low draft). They were used in river warfare during The Civil War. The guns were in the 12 and 24 pound versions and featured a special all wrought iron gun carriage. They were very effective. At their farthest range, The Boat Howitzer had an effective range of 1,270 yards. With Dahlgren's Naval pieces, they ranged from 24 to 32 pound varieties and were used for most Naval ships of The Line. The larger guns (60 to 110 pounders), were used for Coastal defense and siege pieces. Some featured ranges of 3,000 yards. On par with the British Armstrong Gun, The Dalhgren was considered one of the finest Naval and Coastal defense weapons of the 19th Century.

                                                                     Dahlgren_Gun.jpg

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#5 29th May 2015 20:20:07

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDIEVAL WEAPONS
THE CARRACK BLACK SWORD


A standard 15th Century Straight Sword, designed in Portugal, it had the typical "Spanish" design of a curved upright gross guard/hilt (popular in the Region). Often the crossbars were highly embellished. This curving was a clever attempt at counter-balancing the blade and gave it better control when used. Often times referred to as a "Ball Sword". The blades (both single and double-edged), ranged from 40 to 47 inches long. The most telling development of The Carrack Sword, was that it was painted black. These Black Blades were used by The Portuguese Navy as a form of anti-rusting method as well as minimizing light glinting off the blade (effective during night time operations).

                                                                       Carrack_Black_Sword.jpg

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#6 30th May 2015 07:11:05

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON 19TH CENTURY WEAPONS
THE PARROTT RIFLED GUN
                                               

With the onset of The American Civil War (1861-1865), military technology reached new heights (and lows). Often the technology outmatched the tactics of the day. This would cause many more casualties than the traditional "Napoleonic Tactics" taught and used. One such weapon was The Parrott Rifled Gun. Invented by Army Captain Robert Parrott, he had resigned from The US Military Academy at West Point to manage The West Point Foundry. Using then current technology and his own design modifications, he developed The Parrott around 1860 (just in time for use in The Civil War). Made from a brass and cast  wrought-iron composite, The Parrott was supposed to have a much robust barrel. Early tests showed stress fractures due to the large powder charges. Parrott developed a large iron band to be placed around the breech of the barrel. This simple innovation would strengthen the barrel (and also give The Parrott it's characteristic large backside). The Gun ran the range from 10-pound to the rare (and limited number made), 300-pound versions. The 300-pound Parrot was designed for use against the captured Union Fort Sumter (which was the site of the first shots of the war). Used on ships, the 300-pounder Guns would reduce Sumter to rubble by the end of the war. The standard Parrott field piece (24-pounder), had an 1,800 pound barrel weight. This easily made it the heaviest of US field pieces during the war. The maximum effective range of the 24-pounder was roughly 3,000 yards. Both Union and Confederate forces deployed Parrott Guns. A standard Naval version was developed featuring a 100-pound shot capable of 4,400 yards. One of the most famous of The Parrott Guns was "The Swamp Angel". Used in the Siege of Charleston, South Carolina (US), this gun was very effective at destroying the City. The Swamp Angel survived the war and is on display at Trenton, New Jersey (US). All told though, many Artillerist's disliked The Parrott. Consistent firing without proper cooling would still damage the barrel (causing bursting). Barrels therefore needed to be replaced more often. After the war, The Parrott Guns were discontinued from service.

                                           Parrott_Rifle_1.jpg             Parrott_Rifle_2.jpg

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#7 30th May 2015 07:21:42

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON 19TH CENTURY WEAPONS
THE DICTATOR MORTAR
                                                   


One of the largest Mortars ever built in America (up to that time), was The Dictator Mortar. Specifically built for ending The Siege of Petersburg, Virginia (1864) - during The American Civil War. She was constructed of cast iron and weighed in at roughly 17,700 pounds. The Dictator had a maximum effective range of 2.7 miles (firing a 200-pound shell). Due to her size and weight, a specially designed train transport car was made. So large, the special track was laid right to the battlefield position on The Union Lines she would occupy. Crewed by 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery, she fired 3 times daily during the 11-month siege. Her massive shells took almost 30-pounds of gunpowder each shot. After Petersburg, The Dictator was never used again - and her fate is unknown. A replica concrete version of The Dictator (roughly her original size), is displayed at her original firing position at Petersburg National Battlefield Park.

                                              The_Dictator_Mortar_1.jpg           The_Dictator_Mortar_2.jpg

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#8 30th May 2015 17:11:21

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON FAMOUS MILITARY UNITS
BYZANTINE CATAPHRACTS


                                               
Translated to mean “completely armored”, These were the Heavy Cavalry of The Byzantine Army.Century. Seen around the start of the 7th Century and lasting up to the 13th Century, The Cataphracts were heavily armed and armored. Often, their horses were completely covered in light armor as well. They were well-disciplined and fearsome. Often they carried a Lance (or Kontarion), Bow and Mace. Due to their obvious weight, they were very slow with regards to movement on the battlefield (especially a Charge). Still, their effectiveness as “shock troops” were highly exploited by Byzantine Commander.

                                                  Byzantine_Cataphract_1.jpg           Byzantine_Cataphract_2.jpg

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#9 30th May 2015 17:32:25

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDIEVAL WEAPONS
THE SOVNYA SPEAR

                                                                 

Developed in Medieval Russia around the 12th Century, The Sovnya was similar to the French Glaive. Mounted on a wooden pole (roughly 12 to 18 feet long), the weapon featured a 12 to 18-inch sharpened steel blade at it's end. The tip flanged and tapered upwards to feature 2 additional cutting zones. Single-edged, The Sovnya was favored by Cossacks and Light Cavalry Units. Many Muscovite Guard Troops used this weapon and it was favored for it's deadly agility in the hands of a trained user. The Sovnya Sword Staff continued well into the 17th Century.

                                                                   Sovnya_Spear.jpg

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#10 30th May 2015 17:52:29

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON 19TH CENTURY WEAPONS
THE CONGREVE ROCKET
                                                     

Invented by Sir William Congreve in 1804, he had observed the early use of "Asian" rocketry in the conflicts between The British East India Company and The Mysore Indians (Hindu). The Mysorean Rockets were very effective (so much so that Congreve set about re-inventing his own version for British military use). Originally constructed of heavy cardboard (with obvious bad results), lighter iron sheeting rockets were soon developed. The rockets were elongated and conical in shape (tapering to a point). Filled with gunpowder to match artillery poundage measurements, the weapon had fixed fuses extending outward (beyond the rear end of the rocket proper). Side mounting brackets attached the shell to a long wooden "firing stake" (or in some cases, arranged in lines and installed into a primitive form of wooden firing box). The "Firing Box" was a precursor to the Multiple Rocket Launchers of the 20th Century. Launch Poles (the most common form deployed), were between 25 to 27 feet long. There were 3 classes of Rocket: Light, Medium and Heavy. The Heavy version was capable of launching a 300-pound shell some 2,000 yards. This created arguments between traditional Artillerists and Rocketmen. Artillery was roughly the same in yardage and suffered no where near the dangers of a Rocket Battery. Misfires and accidental explosions were quite common. The short fuses were lit via a slow match device. Another problem was accuracy with regards to trajectory impact. Without a "guidance system", often The Congreve's would fly off target. Still for all their problems, The Congreve was used quite regularly during The Napoleonic Wars and several times against American Forces during The War of 1812 (The Battle of New Orleans). In fact, The National Anthem of The United States was based on a Congreve Rocket attack against Fort McHenry (Maryland/US). Congreve Rockets (with some minor improvements), continued onward until the 1830s.Their initial design and innovations would move military technology closer to the more reliable missile systems of the 20th Century.

                                                  Congreve_Rocket_1.jpg          Congreve_Rocket_2.jpg

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#11 31st May 2015 01:45:57

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON 19TH CENTURY WEAPONS
THE WHITWORTH GUN


Invented by Joesph Whitworth in England, The Whitworth Gun was a rarity during The American Civil War (and saw limited service). Used by both sides of the conflict, it was an innovative weapon - in that it was a breech loading gun with incredible accuracy. Capable of firing 10-pound shot projectiles to an effective range of 1,600 yards (with a shot group variance of 5 within a 24-inch target). Many called it a "Sniper Cannon". The weapon (for some unknown reason), was not popular as an anti-infantry weapon. One theory was it it was incapable of using shrapnel rounds (Grape, Canister, etc). Barrels for The Whitworth were unusual in that they were hexagonal (requiring specially designed shells). Whitworth Guns were also known for their unusual metallic "whizzing" noise they made when fired.
Although the guns remained in Federal inventory for many years after the war, they were seldom used.

                                                                     Whitworth_Gun.jpg

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#12 31st May 2015 01:55:14

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON 19TH CENTURY WEAPONS
THE KUKURI KNIFE
                                          

Although examples of these fighting knives from Nepal go back many thousands of years, Europeans came into contact with The Kukri during The British East Indian Company conflicts within the Region. Strange in shape and deadly accurate in the hands of a trained user, it became so popular among Europeans that even the Writer Bram Stoker featured a Kukri in his novel "Dracula" (used by a major character as well as Dracula's Bodyguard). Designed primarily for chopping, The Kukri is usually around 18 to 24 inches in length (with a slight downward curve). The tip of the blade features a angled curve (and is thicker at the front) - tapering backwards to a more slender and even blade. They weighed around 1 to 2 pounds and featured either a wooden or Water Buffalo bone handle. They also featured a rear notch symbolizing Hindu religious connections. The weapon was further made famous by The Brigade of Gurkhas (an elite Native British Army Regiment). They still carry The Kukri Knife.

                                                                Kukuri_Knife.jpg

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#13 31st May 2015 02:00:04

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON 19TH CENTURY WEAPONS
THE COLUMBIAD CANNON
                              

Invented by Army Colonel George Bomford in 1811, these large caliber cannon were the workhorse's of siege and Coastal defense in the US arsenal. Designed to fire solid shot and long shells, The Columbiad Gun survived up to the 20[sup]th[/sup] Century. The gun saw little overseas service (in sales) and was used heavily in both Union and Confederate service. The Columbiad was capable of firing a 65-pound shell some 4,400 yards (with 128-pound versions capable of 6 to 7,000 yards). Often mounted on traversing rail systems, The Columbiad Gun had an excellent rapid positioning system (in some cases being able to be traversed 360 degrees). Although often confused with The Dahlgren Gun (which feature more and bigger calibers), a 400-pound shell version was built (but was never used). Rodman Guns (developed by another maker), are classified as Columbiads. The Confederate Coastal Services exclusively used Columbiads against the Union Navy's ironclad River Fleets (with somewhat good effects). The Confederacy even experimented with rifling some Columbiads (for range). The Spanish-American War of the late 1890s was the last official conflict which saw Columbiads in use.

                                        Columbiad_Gun_1.jpg              Columbiad_Gun_2.jpg

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#14 31st May 2015 02:03:38

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON 19TH CENTURY WEAPONS
THE JAMES GUN

                                
Developed and designed in the 1840s by Charles James, The James Gun was a bronze cast artillery piece that saw service in The American Civil War. The “James Theory” of artillery tubes involve a gradual smoothing and sloping of the barrel, to increase projectile deployment pressures (that often caused stress fractures in the barrels). Although bronze is a “soft” metal, his idea (along with a newer form of projectile) – saw some success on both sides of the war. Developed as 6 and 12-pound models, they saw service mostly in River Forts for defense. Some versions were developed for The Navy in larger calibers (24 to 84-pounders), with the higher ranging at 5,000 yards. As better made tubes and innovations were developed, The James Gun was discontinued for production (1863) – although existing guns saw service in limited use until the 1870s.

                                        James_Rifle_1.jpg             James_Rifle_2.jpg

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#15 31st May 2015 03:00:29

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON FAMOUS MILITARY UNITS
THE POLISH WINGED HUSSARS

                                                                 
The name Hussar is translated to mean "Light Cavalry". Known for mobility on the battlefield (in an Age when Heavy Cavalry ruled), the need for lighter and more mobile forces were needed. In Polish history, The Winged Hussars were one of the primary types of cavalry deployed by The Kings of Poland and Hungary (between the 16th to 18th Centuries). Although Serbia may have first fielded a prototype of Winged Hussar class of warriors - the use of these type of soldiers quickly spread through the Region. As time progressed, Hussars became the "elite force" of Poland's Medieval Armies. Primarily armed with The Lance, "Balkan Shield" and one of the many variations of sword or sabers produced regionally, they were well equipped to handle the rigors of the battlefield. Known as "Banners" (the regional military formation term for  Squadron or Troop), Hussars fought in nearly every Middle Ages conflict in the Kingdoms history. Many were recruited from Serbia and other Balkan Nations. Known for their decorative and highly stylized "wings", that were attached to the back of their armor, many theories have been put forward to explain their actual practical use. Made form Eagle, Goose, Swan or Ostrich feathers, these were arranged on a 3 to 4 foot wooden or metal frame (inverted). Resembling large "wings", as the Hussar would ride (or charge) forward through the wind - a peculiar noise would be generated. Several hundred men therefore would create a frightening sound (advancing towards an enemy). It was also said to make it seem that many "thousands" were coming. It was an excellent example of Medieval psychological warfare (on par with The Horned Helmets of The Teutonic Knights). As time progressed (as well as practical military technology), the use of "The Wings" declined for more battlefield practical uniforms (around the 18th Century).

                                          Polish_Winged_Hussars_2.jpg           Polish_Winged_Hussar_1.jpg

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#16 31st May 2015 15:45:22

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDIEVAL TORTURE DEVICES
PRESSING/CRUSHING

             
Another simple and effective method of torture and execution. Seen in use around the 14th Century, the procedure was used for such crimes as heresy, theft, providing false information (to name a few). This was a slow and painful procedure. A victim (male or female),
would be laid on a slab of stone (or the ground) face up. Normally they were tied (hands and feet). A large slab of heavy wood was placed on top of the victim (to cover them up with the exception of their head). Administrators of the procedure would next place heavy stones or weights (one at a time) on the slab - increasing the weight gradually. The pressure would build up on the chest of the victim, slowly find breathing an impossible task - as the pressure against their chest was increased. Normally, persons would die from suffocation (hopefully). Ultimately, the weight would crush the chest cavity. This procedure could be made to take several days before death. This was a popular form of punishment for Catholics found in England during The Elizabethan Period (during The Persecutions).

                                                                   Pressing.jpg

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#17 31st May 2015 15:55:41

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT OF MEDIEVAL WEAPONS
THE BYZANTINE SPATHION SWORD

                                  
Developed from the ancient Roman Gladius and Spatha Swords, The Spathion was designed around the 3rd Century A.D. and carried forward (mostly unchanged), until the 13th Century. In The Longsword class of weapons, it ranged from 3 to 4 feet in length. Made of iron, they were heavy at 3.5 to in some cases 5 pounds! The weight of the weapon was intentional. In the hands of a trained warrior, as a cleaving, double edged weapon - one could easily remove a limb or two. The weight also was effective against Chain Mail and leather protection. A short infantry version and a longer cavalry type existed.

                                                                 Byzantine_Spathion_Sword.jpg

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#18 31st May 2015 16:20:31

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT OF MEDIEVAL WEAPONS
THE KONTARION SPEAR

                  
A Spear weapon from the 10th to 13th Centuries, The Kontarion was popular with Byzantine mounted Units (such as Cataphracts). Other types of Light Cavalry used them as well. Spear tips (made of iron at first) were between 12 and 18 inches long. They were mounted on a 12 to 15 foot wooden pole (some were even longer). These were excellent stabbing and thrusting weapons that were were particularly effective when used in mass deployment. Many Spear tips have survived (but no actual wooden shafts).

                                               Byzantine_Kontarion_Spear_1.jpg         Byzantine_Kontarion_Spear_2.jpg

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#19 31st May 2015 17:04:08

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDIEVAL ARMOR
THE BALKAN SHIELD
                                                        

As part of the "Hungarian type" Shield family, The Balkan version was slightly different in several aspects. Much as The Hungarian prototype, the Shield was designed to sweep inwards at the bottom for protection, with a sloping ""half front" at the top. Balkan versions were known to be more defined or pointed at the top (as opposed to a more rounded top as The Hungarian version). Mounted troops preferred this version for range of weapons use while mounted. A rounded version (for infantry) and bearing little resemblance to it's mounted "cousin" was developed (and is still in the Balkan Shield family). These style of shields were very popular in the Region until around the 15th Century.

                                                                        Balkan_Shield.jpg

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#20 31st May 2015 17:26:27

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDIEVAL DEFENSE SYSTEMS
THE REDOUBT

                              
Although Redoubts are seen as far back as the mid to late 16th Century (as in The War For The Three Kingdoms), Redoubts became more innovative and better constructed as time progressed. Redoubts were Forts that consisted of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger Fort – usually relying on earthworks constructed of stone or brick. Designed to give protection to soldiers outside of the main defenses – they could be temporary or permanent structure. The irregular shaping of the defensive walls (often over-lapping), gave multiple layers of defense (especially on a flank). Redoubts are often called “Vauban Style” defensive works (after Sebastian Vauban, Marshal of France - who was in charge of The King's Military Engineering in the 16th Century. These Vauban styles were characterized “star shaped” patterns. This would diminish the need for siege warfare. This style was very popular in England, France and Spain (and carried onto their respective Colonies in The New World).

                                          Redoubt_1.jpg          Redoubt_2.jpg

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#21 31st May 2015 17:42:05

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDIEVAL DEFENSE SYSTEMS
THE FORTIFIED TOWER


                   
Towers are defensive structures used and seen in the early 10th Century, in castle or fortification building, to provide an overlook and attack point to an approaching enemy. Depending on size, small to moderate amount of Missile men (Archers and Crossbowmen) can be placed. Often (depending on type), different types of anti-siege weapons could also be installed and used. Although many had “specialized functions”, there were 4 primary design types:

The Round Tower – Also called Drum Towers, were easy to construct and took up little space (footprint). The were more resistant to Sappers (under Miners), and projectiles. Round Towers also provided reinforcement to the defensive wall system.

The Square Tower – Also known as Rectangular Towers. Being strong, they provided an easy target for under Mining (which could bring them down). They also afforded overhead coverage in some varieties.

The Horseshoe Tower Also known as “D” Towers (due to their shape). They were a combination of both Square and Round Towers. The semi-circular portion faced the enemy. These towers also afforded the best protection against Siege Engines.

The Polygonal Tower Also identified as Octagonal Towers. They also featured a rectangular or gabled roof.

          Fortified_Tower_Round_1.jpg   Fortified_Tower_Square_2.jpg   Fortified_Tower_Horseshoe_3.jpg   Fortified_Tower_Polygonial_4.jpg

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#22 31st May 2015 18:10:55

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON DEFENSE SYSTEMS
THE CAPONIER
                                                  

Seen incorporated into most 19th Century fortifications, The Caponier was a way to minimize artillery fire (shells) upon impact of a fort. Also effective against musket fire, designed as an Outer work (similar in theory to a Vauban Wall), shells and shot would hit the sloping inner concrete walling. This would absorb some of the fire and allow shells to roll downward. Generally, small concrete structures (blockhouse) were constructed periodically along the Caponier line to provide additional protection (especially when hollow or canister shot was used). Normally, Caponiers were equipped with firing holes and stairs to allow soldiers to return or engage in fire against an enemy with relative protection.

                                                                  Caponier.jpg

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#23 31st May 2015 18:17:46

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON MEDIEBAL WEAPONS
THE BACKSWORD

                                              

The Back Sword was a type of European weapon known for having a single edged blade. Back Sword's feature a blade composed of triangular cross-sectioning that gives the back section of the blade a cutting edge (sometimes known as a False Edge). Developed in the 14th Century, they will become the first European Swords to feature a “knuckle guard”. They were considered cheap and easy to make (not requiring a Master Swordmaker). The will become very popular among Infantry soldiers. Often seen as a “secondary backup sword), in the early days of Cavalry. The Back Sword was around 35 to 45 inches long. They weighed about 3.5 to 4 pounds. The weapon was mostly carried in a scabbard.

                                                                 Backsword.jpg

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#24 31st May 2015 23:43:53

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Re: History Thread

SPOTLIGHT ON 18TH CENTURY WEAPONS
THE NIMCHA SWORD

                                                                    
Developed around the 17th/18th Centuries, The Nimcha Sword rose from Northwestern Africa (primarily around the Moroccan Region). Falling into The Scimitar family of weapons, it's design type was copied in Germany and other Northern European Nations (as a cavalry weapon). A fatter blade tip, extending downwards some 5 inches before resuming a normal curving (as one would expect from a cavalry blade). The Nimcha ranged from 36 to 45 inches in length and weighed in at 2.5 pounds (somewhat heavier than expected). Nimcha were also known for their stylized “horse head” handle and pommel combinations (made of wood or bone). A “D” guard hand protector was also installed. The Nimcha also featured an unusual Cross hilt, in that in was a small uphooked metal flanged bar. This innovative device was used and part sword catcher and sword breaker. These blades saw some popular service with The Moors.

                                                                 Nimcha_Sword.jpg

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#25 31st May 2015 23:47:16

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Re: History Thread

WEAPONS OF LEGENDARY LEADERS
THE SWORD OF COLONEL GEORGE WASHINGTON HOCKLEY

          
Born in 1802, Hockley was born in Pennsylvania (US). Like most men, he sought his fame and fortune in the wilds of the Mexican Territory of Texas. With the injustices and harsh treatment he and other settler/colonists felt under the stiff rule of Generalissimo Santa Anna – he joined the Texas Revolution.
Commissioned a Colonel in The Provincial Texas Militia, Hockley was given command of establishing and training The Republic's Artillery Corps. He personally commanded the batteries that engaged Santa Anna at The Battle of San Jacinto (1836). His deployment of guns and effective fire helped General Sam Houston defeat “The Dictator”, and win Texas Independence. Hockley served twice as Secretary of War for new Republic and was an important participant in the signing of The Treaty of Hildalgo with Mexico in 1848 (which would bring to an end The Mexican-American War). He died in 1851. Very few surviving portraits or photos of him exist.

                                                       Sword_of_Col_Hockley_1.jpg              Sword_of_Col_Hockley_2.jpg

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